Obesity has become an epidemic problem in the developed countries. Obesity is associated with co-morbidities which are responsible for more than 2.5 million deaths per year worldwide. The loss of life expectancy due to obesity is significant; Obesity is rapidly becoming one of the major medical problems of the developed world. Currently surgery is the only long term effective treatment for morbid obesity.WHICH TYPE OF OBESITY SURGERY IS PRACTICED?
The principle of gastric banding is to reduce the stomach’s volume by dividing it in two parts, just like an hour glass. The first compartment has a volume of 25cc, the equivalent of two tablespoons. The second compartment is the rest of the stomach. As soon as one ingests two spoonfuls, the first compartment is filled and one experiences a feeling of fullness. As the hunger sensation is no longer present, overall food intake is reduced. The outlet size of the first compartment can subsequently be adjusted.
Sleeve gastrectomy is strictly restrictive procedure of the stomach, aiming at making a gastric tube of 100-150 mL, with the preservation of the antrum. The mechanism of weight loss is through a lower intake of food, with the help of impaired appetite, partially due to reduced ghrelin production.
Gastric bypass is a combined restrictive and malabsorptive operation. The restrictive element consists of the creation of a small narrow gastric pouch with a narrow outlet that, on distension by food, causes the sensation of satiety. The length of the bypass determines the degree of macronutrient malabsorption. After surgery, patients often experience marked changes in their behavior. While early satiety is a common feature, most patients also have a reduction in hunger. Patients often state that they enjoy healthy foods and lose many of the excessive food cravings.